8 consonant variables were specified in the grant proposal:
(th): TH-fronting. The pronunciation
of /th/ as [f], in e.g. think, something, has been reported anecdotally
in Glaswegian since the early 1980s (see Macafee 1983; 1994; Stuart-Smith
1999). The more usual Glaswegian (and Lowland Scots) variant is [h] (Macafee
(dh): DH-fronting. In Glaswegian,
at least intervocalically, in e.g. brother, a tap is a common variant
for /dh/ (Macafee 1983). The pronunciation of /dh/ as [v], in e.g. smooth,
was found in the pilot study (Stuart-Smith 1999).
(l): L-vocalization. The change
of /l/ to a vowel took place during the history of Scots, as in e.g. aa
for all (e.g. Macafee 1983). More recently, L-vocalization similar
to that found in Cockney English, to a back rounded vowel or before a
consonant in e.g. well, milk, has been reported in Glaswegian:
Macafee (1983); Stuart-Smith (1999).
(t): T-glottalling. The glottalling
of /t/ between vowels and word-finally, as in e.g. butter, but,
has long been a stigmatized feature of Glaswegian (Macaulay 1977; Macafee
1983; Stuart-Smith 1999a); T-glottalling in non-standard southern English
may originate from Glaswegian.
(x): X-loss. Scottish English
has a distinction between /x/ and /k/, as in loch and lock,
but this is being lost for some speakers (Macafee 1983; Stuart-Smith 1999,
Lawson and Stuart-Smith 1999).
(hw): HW-loss. Again, Scottish
English maintains the distinction between /w/ and /hw/ in pairs such as
wine and whine. Loss of this distinction is reported in Macafee
(1983), Stuart-Smith 1999, Lawson and Stuart-Smith 1999.
(r): R-loss. Scottish English
is typically rhotic, with pronunciation of postvocalic /r/ in e.g. car
and card, as well as red (Wells 1982). Loss of postvocalic
/r/ is reported in Edinburgh schoolchildren by Romaine (1978), and anecdotally
for Glaswegian in Macafee (1983), Stuart-Smith (1999).
(s): S-retraction. A retracted variant of /s/, auditorily closer to
is commonly found in all positions in the word in working-class (Lowland
A further three variables
were added during the course of the project:
(k): K-realization. In order
to investigate the changes in (x), in particular, the possible merger
of /x/ with /k/, we also examined typical pronunciations of /k/, in e.g.
(w): W-realization. Similarly,
the finding of [w] for (hw), suggesting merger of /hw/ with /w/, necessitated
a consideration of typical /w/ pronunciations, in e.g. wine.
(r2): R-realization. The auditory
analysis of postvocalic /r/ proved complex yielding a huge array of variants.
When subsequent categorization still resulted in 11 variants, we separated
the variation into two variables, R-loss – considering the vocalization/loss
of postvocalic /r/, and R-realization – considering the articulation of
in the consonant systems of urban accents across the UK is currently taking
place (papers in Foulkes and Docherty 1999), largely through the diffusion
of features typical of non-standard Southern English accents, and the
levelling out of traditional dialect features.
In Glasgow, TH/DH-fronting
and L-vocalization, features of diffusion elsewhere, are also innovations
or additions to the Glaswegian consonant system. T-glottalling is also
diffusing throughout British urban accents, but an increase in this feature
in Glasgow represents a retention or strengthening of a traditional Glaswegian
feature. So too does maintenance of S-retraction. However, X-loss, HW-loss,
and R-loss reflect the loss of traditional Scottish features from the