Anglo-Saxon Plant-Name Survey

List of Plant-Names and Lexical Studies, with Bibliography



Plant Names
(This list is under construction)

Bibliography


Plant Names

Old English Vocabulary and Classification Scheme taken from the Thesaurus of Old English

Bush | Particular Trees/Shrubs | Fern | Fungus | Lichen | Moss | Grasses, Reeds | Particular Fruits | Nut | Paricular Nuts | Edible Root/Bulb | Other Vegetables | Particular Herbs/Spices | Plants/Flowers | Seaweed | Unidentified Plants | Herb with Medicinal Properties | Wheat | Oats | Grain Crops | Barley | Kind of Millet | Rye | Wheat | Flax | Hemp | Harvest, Crop |
 
Plant-Name Existing or In-Progress Semantic Studies
   
OET 02.07.03.01: A Bush  
   
brom McClure 1974
cneowholen  
fyrs Cox 1987-8
gors(t), gorstbeam Cox 1987-8
(also 02.07.03.05)  
[ON hvin] Cox 1987-8
[ON lyng] Cox 1987-8, James 1985
word  
   
OET 02.07.03.05: Particular Trees/Shrubs  
   
abies, æbs  
ac, acbeam, actreo Moffat 1987, Hooke
acmistel, mistel (also 02.07.10.01),  
misteltan  
æsc  
æspe Biggam
alor  
ananbeam  
balsalm  
bece, bectreow Ebbinghaus 1982, Peeters 1982
beorc/byrce, byrctreow  
blæcþorn  
boc, boctreow  
box, boxtreow, byxe  
brer, brerþyrne Banham
ceder, cederbeam, cedertreow  
corntreow  
cwicbeam, cwictreow Biggam
cwicen  
cypressus  
cystel(beam), cysten, cyst(en)beam  
ellen, ellentreow  
elm, ilme, ulmtreow  
eoh, iw Biggam
eorþifig  
fula beam, fuletreo  
furh/fyrh, furhwudu  
gatetreow  
gyr, gyrtreow  
hæsel, hæsler  
hæþ James 1985
heard, heord  
heorotbrem(b)el, heorotbrer Banham
hlin  
holen Mansion, 1907, Field 1987, Atkin 1988-9
hulfere  
hunigsuge  
hwitingtreow  
ifig  
laur, laurbeam, laurtreow, lawernbeam  
lind  
lusþorn  
mapulder, mapultreow  
oser  
pinbeam, pintreow  
popul Horn 1996
pricþorn Hooke
pryfet  
sæppe  
safene  
sealegn, sealh Ekwall 1926
setþorn Hooke
sicomorus, sycomer  
slahþorn  
spracen  
stancyst(en)  
suþerige  
syrfe, syrftreow  
þorn, þornþyfel, þyrne Biggam 1998, Hooke
þyfeþorn  
wananbeam  
welig Biggam 1998
wice  
windeltreow  
wir, wirtreow  
wiþig Biggam 1998
   
OET 02.07.04: Fern  
   
eoforfearn  
fenfearn  
   
OET 02.07.05: Fungus  
   
feldswamm  
meteswamm  
swamm  
   
OET 02.07.06: Lichen  
   
beorcragu  
ciricragu  
ragu Biggam 1998
slahþornragu  
   
OET 02.07.07: Moss  
   
meos  
   
OET 02.07.08: Grasses, Reeds etc.  
   
benne  
beonet  
beos, beosuc  
bune  
cannon  
cassuc, hassuc  
cwice  
duþhamor  
earisc  
eolhsecg Bierbaumer
gærs  
græd  
hamorsecg  
hreod  
læfer  
lisc  
morsecg  
pulsper  
risc(e)  
scaldhulas  
secg  
sprot(t)  
unfortredde, unfortreden wyrt  
   
OET 02.07.09.02: Particular Fruits  
   
æpening  
æppeltreow, apuldor Biggam 1998
æppelþorn  
bremel, bremelbrær, bremelþorn, Banham
bremelþyrne  
cirisbeam, cyrstreow  
elebeam, eletreow  
feldwop  
fenix  
fic, ficbeam, fictreow  
hægþorn, haguþorn  
hegehymele  
heopbremel, heope Banham
hindbrer Banham
horte  
hymele  
mealtwyrt  
mispeler  
morbeam  
openærs Brøndegaard 1979
palm(a), palmtreow  
persoctreow  
pirie  
plume, plumtreow, plyme  
rose  
streawberian wise, streawberige Bender 1934
surapuldre, surmilsc apulder  
winbeam, wingeard, wintreow  
wudurose  
   
OET 02.07.09.02.01: Nut  
   
hnutbeam  
   
OET 02.07.09.02.01.01: Particular Nuts  
   
easterne nute beam  
magdalatreow  
wealhnutu  
   
OET 02.07.09.02.02.01: Edible Root/Bulb  
   
antre  
betan more, bete  
bradeleac (also 02.07.10.01) Bierbaumer
cipeleac, cipe  
craw(an)leac  
cropleac  
englisc more  
feldmore  
fulle  
garleac  
hamwyrt  
holleac  
hramsa  
hwitleac Bierbaumer
leac  
næp  
porr, porleac  
rædic  
riscleac  
secgleac  
sinfulle, singrene  
þunorwyrt  
wilde næp  
ynneleac  
   
OET 02.07.09.02.02.02: Other Vegetables  
   
bean Field 1987
billere Breeze 2000
brassica  
broccerse  
cærse  
cawl, cawlic  
cottuc  
cucumer  
eacerse  
eorþæppel  
eorþnafela  
fencerse  
fenogrecum  
finol  
glæppe  
hwerhwette  
lactuce, leahtric  
lambes cerse  
leaccærse  
lent, lenticulas  
meteþistel  
pise Field 1987
reosan  
tuncærse  
worþ(ig)cærse  
wyllecærse Biggam 1997
   
OET 02.07.10.01: Particular Herbs/Spices  
   
ælere  
balsmeþe, balsmite  
bogen, boþen  
brocminte  
broþorwyrt  
cassia  
celendre, coliandre  
[Lat collocasia, carocasia, collocasta, colosia] Biggam 1998
croh Rumble 1976, Biggam 1996
cunele  
cymen  
cyninges wyrt  
dile  
dweorgedwosle, dweorgedwusle  
(also 02.07.11)  
eorþmistel  
feldmædere  
feldminte  
feltwurma  
fenminte  
fille  
hareminte Biggam 1998
hæluwyrt, hylwyrt Bierbaumer
horsminte  
liþeleaf  
mageþe  
[Lat menta] Biggam 1998
[Lat mentastrum] Biggam 1998
minte  
[Lat nepeta] Biggam 1998
organe  
petersilie  
pollegie  
sæminte  
salfie  
senep  
stanmerce  
sunddeaw Bierbaumer
wuducunele  
wudufille  
wurmille  
   
OET 02.07.11: Plants/Flowers  
   
[Lat abrotanum] Biggam 1998
[Lat absinthium, absynthium] Biggam 1998
adreminte Biggam
ægwyrt  
ælfþone  
æppelleaf  
æscþrote  
æscwyrt  
æþelferþingwyrt Kitson 1988
agrimonia  
alexandre  
alwe  
ameos  
ampre  
[Lat anchusa] Biggam 1998
aprotane, prutene  
[Lat arcion] Biggam 1998
argentille  
armelu  
arod  
[Lat artemisia] Biggam 1998
asterion  
bedewind  
belene  
beowyrt  
berbene  
berewinde  
[Lat betonica, vettonica] Biggam 1994, Biggam 1997
betonice  
bisceopwyrt, bisceopwyrtel  
blind(e) netel Campanile 1974
brad þistel  
brocþung Bierbaumer
brun(e)wyrt  
brysewyrt  
bulut  
[Lat caballopodia]  
cammoc  
candelwyrt  
ceasteræsc  
ceasterwyrt  
cedelic  
celeþonie  
centaurie  
cerfelle  
cerlic  
cicena mete Bierbaumer
clæferwyrt, clæfre Field 1987
clate  
clatecrop  
clife, clifwyrt  
">clite, cliþe, cliþwyrt  
clufþung(e), clufwyrt  
colloncroh Lehmann 1907
coltgræg Bierbaumer
coltetræppe  
consolde  
cost  
cottuc  
coydic  
cristalla  
cuneglæsse  
curmealle Bierbaumer
curmealle seo læsse, seo lytle culmille,  
seo lytle curmealle Bierbaumer
cuslyppe, cusloppe Brøndegaard 1987, Biggam 1997, Horn 1992, Rydén1993
cymed  
dæges eage  
disma, disme  
docce  
dolgrune  
dracentse  
eadocce  
eagwyrt  
ealifer  
earfe  
eawyrt  
[Lat echios, hecios, aecios, echion] Biggam 1998
efe(n)laste  
elehtre Schneider 1985, D’Aronco 1990, D’Aronco
ellenwyrt  
englisc cost  
eoforþrote  
eolone  
eorþg(e)alla  
fane  
feferfuge Biggam
feldbisceopwyrt  
feldrude  
feldwyrt Bierbaumer
feltere  
feltwyrt  
fenompre  
ferdwyrt  
ficwyrt Field 1987
fiffingre Field 1987
fifleafe Field 1987
fingerdocca  
fleaþe, fleoþe  
fleaþorwyrt  
fleawyrt  
fornetes folm Bierbaumer 1974, Rydén 1989, Bierbaumer
foxes clate  
foxes clife  
foxes glof(a)  
fugeles wyse  
fugles bean  
gagel  
galluc D’Aronco 1985-6, D’Aronco
garclife  
geaces sure  
gearwe O’Hare
gelodwyrt Field 1987
geormanleaf Krogmann 1934-5, 1935-6, 1936, Gutenbrunner 1936, Trier 1945
geormanletic  
gesca(l)dwyrt  
glædene  
glofwyrt Rydén 1987
goldbloma  
golde  
goldwyrt  
gotwoþe  
(þa) greatan netlan  
greate wyrt  
g(r)undeswelge  
hamorwyrt  
haranhige  
haransprecel Biggam 1998
harhune Biggam 1998
heahheoloþe  
heahhymele  
healfwudu  
hegeclife  
hegerife  
helde Field 1987
hennebelle  
heorotclæfre  
hierdewyrt  
hindhæleþe  
hlæderwyrt  
hlenortear Rosier 1978
hleomoc(e)  
hoc(c)  
hocleaf  
hofe  
horselene Bierbaumer
hræfnes fot Field 1987
hræfnes leac Rydén 1989
hrætelwyrt  
hratele  
hundes heafod  
hundes micge  
hundes tunge  
hundesberie  
hune  
hwatend  
hwite clæfre  
hylwyrt  
hymlic, hymlice Wotherspoon
isenhearde  
læcewyrt (also 02.08.12.02.05.01) Biggam 1997
lappe  
leaþorwyrt  
leloþre  
leonfot  
leoþuwyrt, liþwyrt  
liferwyrt  
lilie  
lufestice  
lustmoce  
[Lat lycanis, lichanis] Biggam 1997
mæddre Field 1987, Rosenfeld 1976
mægþa, mageþa (also 02.08.12.02.05.01)  
[mare] Field 1987
[Lat marrubium] Biggam 1998
mealwe  
meargealla  
meduwyrt  
melde  
merece  
merschofe  
merscmealwe  
merscmeargealla  
mixenplante  
moldcorn  
morwyrt  
mucgwyrt Biggam 1998
musepise  
nædderwinde  
næddrewyrt  
nard  
nefte, nepte, næpte Biggam 1998
netel(e)  
nihtscada  
[Lat onochilon] Biggam 1998
oxanslippe Horn 1992, Rydén 1993
oxna lybb  
peonie  
[Lat personata] Biggam 1998
perwince  
pipineale  
popig  
[Lat prassium, prasion] Biggam 1998
[Lat pseudoanchusa] Biggam 1998
pyretre  
[Lat quinquefolia] Field 1987
ramgealla  
reade clæfre  
(seo) reade netele  
ribbe  
rude  
[*sæterwyrt] Hough 1998
saturege  
selfæte  
selfhæle  
seofonleafe Field 1987
sideware  
sigelhweorfa  
siger, sir  
slarege  
slite  
smale clate  
smale clife  
smale netele  
smeoruwyrt  
sniþstreo  
solate  
solsece  
sperewyrt  
springwyrt  
stælwyrt  
stancrop  
sticwyrt  
sundampre  
sundcorn  
sunfolgend  
sun(nan)corn  
sure  
suþerne wermod Biggam 1998
suþernewudu Biggam 1998
symeringwyrt  
tansiþe  
þistel  
þunorclæfre  
þuþistle  
titolose  
tunhofe  
tunmelde  
tunsingwyrt  
ualeriane  
[Lat ungula caballi]  
wad Field 1987
wæterwyrt  
wealwyrt  
wedberge  
wegbræde  
wenwyrt  
wermod Biggam 1998
wilde cyrfet  
wiþobend  
wiþowinde  
wodewistle  
worþignetele  
wudubind(l)e  
wuducerfille  
wuduclæfre  
wududocce  
wuduleahtric  
wudumerce  
wudurofe  
wudusure  
wuduþistle  
wuduweax(e)  
wuduwinde  
wulfes camb  
wulfes tæsel  
wyrmwort  
ysope  
   
OET 02.07.11.01: Seaweed  
   
fleotwyrt Unebe
flotwyrt Unebe
sæwar Unebe
war Unebe
waroþ Unebe
   
OET 02.07.11.02: Unidentified Plants  
   
[Lat aeluros, eluros, caeluros] Biggam 1994, Biggam 1997
æferþe  
[atorlaþe] Cameron 1992
banwyrt  
bulentse  
[Lat britannica] Biggam 1994, Biggam 1997
cealfwyrt  
[cex] Kitson 1988
coþuwyrt  
crawenbeam  
dynige  
eacrop  
eofole  
eorþcrop  
eorþrima  
foxes fot Bierbaumer
fugles leac  
giþcorn  
(seo) greate banwyrt  
gylde  
hæþcole  
hæwenhydele Biggam 1994, Biggam 1997
hafocwyrt  
harewyrt, haranwyrt Biggam 1998
healswyrt  
holecerse  
[hwitmæring] Biggam 1997
ife  
lungenwyrt  
[Lat luteum, lutum] Biggam 1994
onred  
oxantunge  
ryden  
sion  
sigsonte  
stæþwyrt  
stieme  
stiþe  
st(r)ælwyrt  
suþerige  
þelneþung  
þeorwyrt  
þrilefe  
þung  
þyfel  
toscanleac  
twileafa  
uma  
witmæreswyrt, [wihtmereswyrt] Biggam 1994, Biggam 1997
wrætt(e)  
wuduclate  
wurma, wurme  
   
OET 02.08.12.02.05.01: A Herb with Medicinal Properties  
   
caulic (also 02.08.12.02.05)  
mandragora  
   
OET 04.01.02.01.03.01: Wheat  
   
hlafhwæte  
   
OET 04.01.02.01.03.03: Oats  
   
ate (also 04.02.04.04) Field 1987
[ON hafri] Field 1987
[ON korki] Field 1987
[pilate] Field 1987
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.01: Grain Crops  
   
amer  
corn (also 04.01.02.01.03)  
cornciþ  
ern, ernþ  
spelt (also 04.01.02.01.03)  
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.01.01: Barley  
   
bærlic Field 1987
beow (also 04.01.02.01.03.02)  
bere (also 04.01.02.01.03.02) Field 1987
[ON bygg] Field 1987
lenctenbere  
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.01.02: A Kind of Millet  
   
mil (also 04.01.02.01.03.05)  
panic (also 04.01.02.01.03.05)  
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.01.04:Rye  
   
ryge (also 04.01.02.01.03.04) Field 1987
sigle (also 04.01.02.01.03.04)  
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.01.05: Wheat  
   
[Lat far] Biggam 1998
[ON hveiti] Field 1987
hwæte (also 04.01.02.01.03.01) Field 1987, Biggam 1998
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.02: Flax  
   
fleax Field 1987
lin, linwyrt Field 1987, Biggam 1997
[ON lin] Field 1987
   
OET 04.02.04.03.02.04: Hemp  
   
hænep Field 1987
   
OET 04.02.04.04: Harvest, Crop  
   
coccel  
earfe  
giþrife  
laser  
sifeþa (also 04.01.02.01.03.06 and 04.02.04.04.05.02)  


Bibliographical References

For the authors of in-progress work, please refer to the list of ASPNS contributing authors.
 

Atkin, M., ‘Hollin Names in North-West England’, Nomina 12 (1988-9), 77-88

Bender, H.H., ‘English strawberry’, American Journal of Philology 55 (1934), 71-4

Bierbaumer, Peter, ‘Ae. fornetes folm: eine Orchideenart’, Anglia 92 (1974), 172-6

Biggam, C.P., Blue in Old English: an Interdisciplinary Semantic Study (Amsterdam, 1997)

Biggam, C.P., Grey in Old English: an Interdisciplinary Semantic Study (London, 1998)

Biggam, C.P., ‘Hæwenhnydele: an Anglo-Saxon Medicinal Plant’, Botanical Journal of Scotland 46 (1994), 617-22

Biggam, C.P., ‘Saffron in Anglo-Saxon England’, Dyes in History and Archaeology 14 (1996 for 1995), 25-37 [croh]

Breeze, Andrew, [article on the Cornish etymology of billere] (forthcoming, 2000)

Brøndegaard, Vagn Jørgensen, ‘Ein angelsächsischer Pflanzenname: openars(e)’, Sudhoffs Archiv 63 (1979), 190-3

Brøndegaard, Vagn Jørgensen, ‘Kodriver, Cowslip’, Sudhoffs Archiv 71.1 (1987), 100-102

Campanile, Enrico, ‘Minima Cornica’, Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 33 (1974), 23-7 [blind(e) netel]

Cameron, M.L., ‘What Plant was Attorlothe (atorlaþe)?’, Parergon 10.2 (1992), 27-34

Cox, Barrie, ‘Furze, Gorse and Whin: an Aside on Rutland in the Danelaw’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 20 (1987-8), 3-9

D’Aronco, Maria Amalia, ‘Divergenze e convergenze lessicali in inglese antico: il case di elehtre’, Studi sulla cultura germanica dei secoli IV-XII in onore di Giulia Mazzuoli Porru [= Romanobarbarica 10], edited by M.A. D’Aronco, A.M. Luiselli Fadda and M.V. Molinari (Rome, 1990), 65-102

D’Aronco, Maria Amalia, ‘Inglese antico galluc’, Annali, Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli: sezione germanica, Filologia germanica 28-9 (1985-6), 83-100

Ebbinghaus, Ernst A., ‘The Book and the Beech Tree’, General Linguistics 22 (1982), 99-103

Ekwall, E., ‘The Name Salcey’, Anglia Beiblatt 37 (1926), 191-2 [sealegn]

Field, John, ‘Crops for Man and Beast’, Leeds Studies in English n.s. 18 (1987), 111-23

Gutenbrunner, S., ‘Der Malvenname ags. geormenleaf’, Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 12 (1936), 40-42

Horn, Peter C., ‘The Earliest Reference to Black Poplar in England?’, BSBI News 73 (1996), 28

Horn, Peter C., ‘Old Names for Native Primulas’, BSBI News 62 (1992), 37-8 [primrose, cowslip]

Hough, Carole, ‘The Place-Name Satterleigh’, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 2.99 (1998), 173-5 [*sæterwyrt]

James, A., ‘Heath, Heather and Ling in Place-Names’, The Year Book of the Heather Society (1985), 40-5

Kitson, Peter, ‘Two Old English Plant-Names and Related Matters’, English Studies 69 (1988), 97-112 [æþelferþingwyrt, cex]

Krogmann, W., ‘Ae. georman-, geormen-’, Englische Studien 70 (1935-6), 322-3

Krogmann, W., ‘Ae. geormanleaf’, Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 12 (1936), 173-81

Krogmann, W., ‘Ae. geormanleaf und der Name der Germanen’, Englische Studien 69 (1934-5), 161-79

Lehmann, W., ‘Zu ae. collon-croh, ahd. coller-wurz ‘nymphaea’’, Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung 9 (1907), 23-6, 161

McClure, Peter, ‘Three Plant Names in ME Place-Names and Surnames: ‘Breme’, ‘Rounce’, ‘Bilberry’’, Notes and Queries 21 (1974), 42-4

Mansion, J., ‘Die Etymologie von holen’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 33 (1907), 547-70

Moffat, Douglas, ‘The Occurrences of ac ‘oak’ in Old English: a List’, Mediaeval Studies 49 (1987), 534-40

Peeters, Christian, ‘Proto-Germanic ‘book’: a Comparative Note’, General Linguistics 22 (1982), 266 [bece]

Rosenfeld, H-F., ‘And. *roda, ahd. *matara, mlat. gaisto, gaisdo, ahd. retza, frühmhd. risza, rizza, Farberröte, Krapp, Rubia tinctorum L. und Verwandtes’, Festschrift für Gerhard Cordes zum 65. Geburtstag, vol. 2 (Neumünster, 1976), 257-93 [madder]

Rosier, J.L., ‘A Different Hyssop: Old English hlenortear’, Word 29 (1978), 110-3

Rumble, Alexander R., ‘Place-Names and their Context with Special Regard to the Croydon Survey Region’, Proceedings of the Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society 15 (1976), 161-84 [place-name contains OE croh]

Rydén, Mats, ‘English Names for Convallaria Majalis L.’, Studier i modern språkvetenskap, new series 8 (1987), 61-70 [lily-of-the valley]

Rydén, Mats, ‘English Names for Primulas’, BSBI News 63 (1993), 25 [primrose, cowslip]

Rydén, Mats, ‘Two Old English Names for Orchids’, Essays on English Language in Honour of Bertil Sundby, edited by Leiv Egil Breivik, Arnoldus Hille and Stig Johansson (Oslo, 1989) [fornetes folm, hræfnes leac]

Schneider, Karl, ‘Zur Etymologie von ae. eolhsand ‘Bernstein’ und elehtre ‘Lupine’ im Lichte bronzezeitlichen Handels’, Collectanea Philologica: Festschrift für Helmut Gipper zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Günther Heintz and Peter Schmitter (Baden-Baden, 1985), II, 669-81

Trier, J., ‘Ags. geormanleaf’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 67 (1945), 64


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