ASPNS Bibliography 5: Types of Plants


5. Types of Plant

(Intended for types of plant, and specific plants. For works on plants in general, see Bibiography 3, and for plant habitats, see Bibliography 4. See also Bibliography 8: Environmental History. For food plants, see Bibliography 6, for medicinal plants, see Bibliography 10, and for dye plants, see Bibliography 12. It should be noted that the preference in this section is for a popular taxonomy, not a botanical classification).

5.1 Broad Classes of Plant
(For particular habitats, see Bibliography 4).

Dandy, J.E., List of British Vascular Plants (London, 1958)
Kent, D.H., List of Vascular Plants of the British Isles (London, 1992) [see also Kent below]
Kent, D.H., Supplement to List of Vascular Plants of the British Isles (London, 1996) [see also Kent above]
Nicholson, B.E. and F.H. Brightman, The Oxford Book of Flowerless Plants (Oxford, 1966)
Rich, T.C.G., Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1991)
Tutin, T.G., Umbellifers of the British Isles (London, 1980)
Willis, J.C., A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, eighth edition by H.K.A. Shaw (Cambridge, 1973)


5.2 Ferns

5.2.1 Reference Sources

Fitter, R., A. Fitter and A. Farrer, Collins Guide to the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Ferns of Britain and Northern Europe (London, 1984)
Jermy, A.C., et al., Atlas of Ferns of the British Isles (London, 1978)
Jones, D.L., Encyclopaedia of Ferns (London, 1987)
Merryweather, J. and M. Hill, 'The Fern Guide: an Introductory Guide to the Ferns, Clubmosses, Quillworts and Horsetails of the British Isles', Field Studies 8 (1992), 101-88
Phillips, Roger, Grasses, Ferns, Mosses & Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1980)
Step, Edward, Wayside and Woodland Ferns: a Pocket Guide to the British Ferns, Horsetails and Club-Mosses (London, 1908)
Willis, J.C., A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, eighth edition by H.K.A. Shaw (Cambridge, 1973)

5.2.2 General Works

Freethy, R., British Ferns (Marlborough, 1987)
Page, C.N., The Ferns of Britain and Ireland (Cambridge, 1982)

5.2.3 Fern-Names
(Names of individual ferns can be found in Section 5.10)

Druery, C.T., 'British Fern Names', Gardeners' Chronicle 3.33 (1903), 418


5.3 Rushes

5.3.1 Reference Sources

Fitter, R., A. Fitter and A. Farrer, Collins Guide to the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Ferns of Britain and Northern Europe (London, 1984)

5.3.2 General Works

[Anon.], 'The Use and Sale of Rushes for Rushlights, Norfolk', Kew Bulletin (1930), 337
Skytte Christiansen, M., Grasses, Sedges and Rushes (Blandford, 1979)


5.4 Grasses and Sedges

5.4.1 Reference Sources

Fitter, R., A. Fitter and A. Farrer, Collins Guide to the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Ferns of Britain and Northern Europe (London, 1984)
Hubbard, C.E., Grasses: a Guide to their Structure, Identification, Uses, and Distribution in the British Isles, third edition by J.C.E. Hubbard (Harmondsworth,1984)
Jermy, A.C., A.O. Chater and R.W. David, Sedges of the British Isles (London, 1982)
Landwehr, J., Atlas van de Nederlandse Grassen (Zutphen, 1977)
Phillips, Roger, Grasses, Ferns, Mosses & Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1980)

5.4.2 General Works

Bolin, P., De Svenska Grasen (Stockholm, 1927)
Kalm, P., Förteckning på Några Inhemska Färgegräs (1745) [dyeplants]
Skytte Christiansen, M., Grasses, Sedges and Rushes (Blandford, 1979)

5.4.3 Names of Grasses and Sedges

Rydén, Mats, 'Om Folklig Klassificering och Namngivning av Svenska Gräs', Språk och Stil, new series 1 (1991)


5.5 Fungi

5.5.1 Reference Sources

Cooper, M.R. and A.W. Johnson, Poisonous Plants and Fungi: an Illustrated Guide (London, 1988)
Larone, D.H., Medically Important Fungi: a Guide to Identification, second edition (Amsterdam, 1987)

5.5.2 General Works

Lange, M. and F.E. Hora, Mushrooms and Toadstools (1963)
Loewenfeld, Claire, Fungi (London, 1956)
Zeitlmayr, Linus, Wild Mushrooms (London, 1968)


5.6 Lichens

5.6.1 Journals

Lichenologist (1958-)

5.6.2 Reference Sources

Phillips, Roger, Grasses, Ferns, Mosses & Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1980)

5.6.3 General Works

Bolton, Eileen M., Lichens for Vegetable Dyeing (London, 1960)
Casselman, Karen Diadick, 'Norse Lichen Dyes', Handwoven (September/October 1996), 48-50
Cooksey, C.J., 'Bibliography: Lichen Purple', Dyes in History and Archaeology 15 (1997), 103-10
Dallon, M., 'Orchil of Auvergne', Dyes in History and Archaeology 15 (1997), 97-102
Dobson, Frank, Lichens: an Illustrated Guide, second edition (Richmond, 1981)
Laundon, Jack R., Lichens (Princes Risborough, 1986)
Lindsay, W. Lauder, 'The Dyeing Properties of Lichens', Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, new series 2 (1855), 56-80
Lindsay, W. Lauder, 'Experiments on the Dyeing Properties of Lichens', Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 57 (1854), 228-49 and 385-401


5.7 Mosses, Liverworts and Clubmosses
(Clubmosses are related to ferns, but popularly associated with mosses)

5.7.1 Reference Sources

Phillips, Roger, Grasses, Ferns, Mosses & Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1980)

5.7.2 General Works

Hall, Allan R., 'Hair Moss', Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16-22 Coppergate, by P. Walton (London, 1989), 395-7 [York]
Hall, Allan R., 'Of Moss and Men', Interim 11.3 (1986), 36-41
Williams, D., 'Bryophytes in Archaeology', Science and Archaeology 18 (1976), 12-14

5.7.3 Specific Locations

Landt, J., Forsog til en Beskrivelse over Faeroerne (1800)
Robinson, D., 'Clubmosses from Medieval Perth', Antiquity 60 (1986), 49-50


5.8 Seaweeds

5.8.1 General Works

Bird, K.T. and P.H. Benson, ed., Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources (Amsterdam, 1987)
Chapman, V.J., Seaweeds and their Uses, second edition (London, 1970)
Luning, K., Seaweeds: their Environment, Biogeography and Ecophysiology (Chichester, 1990)


5.9 Trees and Shrubs
(Intended for trees and shrubs, type unspecified. For specific types, see Section 5.10. See also Section 4.1: Forests and Woodland).

Trees: a good source is Simpson, N. Douglas, A Bibliographical Index of the British Flora Including Floras, Herbals, Periodicals, Societies and References Relating to the Identification, Distribution and Occurrence of Phanerogams, Vascular Cryptogams and Charophytes in the British Isles (Simpson, 1960), p. 57-9.

5.9.1 Reference Sources

Bean, W.J., Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, eighth edition by D.L. Clarke, parts 1-4, and Supplement (London, 1970-88)
Godet, Jean-Denis, Mosaik's Photographic Key to the Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain and Northern Europe: a New System for Identifying Trees by their Leaves and Needles (Basingstoke, 1993)
Harris, Esmond and Jeanette Harris, Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Britain (London, 1981)
Humphries, C.J., J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton, The Hamlyn Guide to Trees of Britain and Europe (London, 1981)
Polunin, Oleg and B. Everard, Trees and Bushes of Europe (Oxford, 1976)

5.9.2 General Works

Edlin, H.L., Trees, Woods and Man, third edition (London, 1970)
Edlin, H.L., Woodland Crafts in Britain: an Account of the Traditional Uses of Trees and Timbers in the British Countryside (London, 1949)
Milner, J. Edward, The Tree Book: the Indispensable Guide to Tree Facts, Crafts and Lore (London, 1992)
Mitchell, Alan, Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain (London, 1996)
Mitchell, Alan, The Trees of Britain and Northern Europe, second edition (London, 1988)
Rackham, Oliver, 'Trees and Woodland in Anglo-Saxon England: the Documentary Evidence', Environment and Economy in Anglo-Saxon England: a Review of Recent Work on the Environmental Archaeology of Rural and Urban Anglo-Saxon Settlements in England, edited by James Rackham (London, 1994), 7-11
Rackham, Oliver, Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape: the Complete History of Britain's Trees, Woods and Hedgerows, revised edition (London, 1990)
Raghavendra, A.S., ed., Physiology of Trees (Chichester, 1992)
Tolley, C., 'Oswald's Tree', Pagans and Christians: the Interplay Between Christian Latin and Traditional Germanic Cultures in Early Medieval Europe, edited by T. Hofstra et al. (Groningen, 1995)
White, John, Forest and Woodland Trees in Britain (Oxford, 1995)
Williams, D., 'Identification of Waterlogged Wood by the Archaeologist', Science and Archaeology 14 (1975), 3-4

5.9.3 Dendrochronology

Baillie, M.G.L., Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology (London, 1982)
Fletcher, John M., 'Roman and Saxon Dendro Dates', Current Archaeology 76 (1981), 150-2
Hillam, Jennifer, 'An English Tree-Ring Chronology, A.D. 404-1216', Medieval Archaeology 25 (1981), 30-44
Schove, D.J., 'Dark Age Tree-Ring Dates, A.D. 490-850', Medieval Archaeology 23 (1979), 219-23
Tyers, Ian et al., 'Trees and Woodland in the Saxon Period: the Dendrochronological Evidence', Environment and Economy in Anglo-Saxon England: a Review of Recent Work on the Environmental Archaeology of Rural and Urban Anglo-Saxon Settlements in England, edited by James Rackham (London, 1994), 12-22

5.9.4 Tree-Names
(Names of individual trees can be found in Section 5.10)

Edlin, H.L., 'Cornish Wood-Names and Tree-Names', Forestry 27 (1954), 147
Edlin, H.L., 'English Tree Names and their Origins', Forestry 24 (1953), 57
Edlin, H.L., 'Wood-Names and Tree-Names on the Maps of Britain', Forestry 25 (1952), 51-65
Fries, S., Studier över Nordiska Trädnamn (Uppsala, 1957)
Peeters, Christian, 'The Word for 'tree' in the Germanic Languages and the Reconstruction of Proto-Germanic', Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 88 (1974), 129-33

5.9.5 Folklore of Trees

Gregor, W., 'Some Folk-Lore on Trees... from the North-East of Scotland', Folklore Journal 7 (1889), 41
Heath, F.G., Tree Gossip (1885)
Heath, F.G., Tree Lore (1912)
Ohlgren, Thomas H., 'The Pagan Iconography of Christian Ideas: Tree-Lore in Anglo-Viking England', Mediaevistik 1 (1989), 145-73
Phythian, J.E., Trees in Nature, Myth and Art (1907)
Rival, Laura, ed., The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism (Oxford, 1998)
Yonge, John, 'Notes on the 'Hwiting Treow' of the Anglo-Saxons', Archaeologia 42 (1869), 124-6

5.9.6 Specific Locations

5.9.6.1 Carlisle

Groves, Cathy, Dendrochronological Analysis of Timbers from the Lanes, Carlisle, Cumbria, 1978-82: Volume 1 (London, 1993)

5.9.6.2 Gartree

Arngart, Olof, 'Three English Hundred-Names', Namn och Bygd 66 (1978), 13-17 [includes Gartree]

5.9.6.3 Gloucestershire

Welch, F.B., 'Place-Names and Trees in Gloucestershire', Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club 26 (1936-8), 324-7

5.9.6.4 North Elmham

Fletcher, John M., 'Dendrochronology of the Preserved Timbers from Well II Excavated in North Elmham Park', Norfolk Archaeology 38 (1982), 192

5.9.6.5 Portchester

Fletcher, John M. and A. Dabrowska, 'Tree-Ring Examination of Timbers from the Sixth-Century Well at Portchester Castle', Archaeometry 18 (1976), 92-9

5.9.6.6 Sheffield

Hillam, Jennifer, 'Recent Tree-Ring Work in Sheffield', Current Archaeology 96 (1985), 21-6

5.9.6.7 Worcestershire

Hemingway, J., 'The Flora of Early Medieval Worcestershire as Recorded in Contemporary Documents: Shrubs and Herbs, Worcestershire Archaeology and Local History Newsletter 33 (1984), 4-10
Hemingway, J., 'The Flora of Early Medieval Worcestershire as Recorded in Contemporary Documents: Trees, Worcestershire Archaeology and Local History Newsletter 30 (1983), 4-14

5.9.6.8 York

Hall, A.R., 'Seeing the Wood for the Trees', Interim 8.3 (1982), 21-5 [timber from York excavations]




5.10 Individual Plants

5.10.1 Collections of Individual Studies

Bierbaumer, Peter, Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen, 3 vols (1975-9)
Biggam, C.P., Blue in Old English: an Interdisciplinary Semantic Study (Amsterdam, 1997)
Biggam, C.P., Grey in Old English: an Interdisciplinary Semantic Study (London, 1998)
Cox, Barrie, 'Furze, Gorse and Whin: an Aside on Rutland in the Danelaw', Journal of the English Place-Name Society 20 (1987-8), 3-9
Ekwall, E., 'Names of Plants and Trees', Studies on English Place-Names by Eilert Ekwall (Stockholm, 1936), 105-29
Hoops, J., 'Über die altenglischen Pflanzennamen' (Dissertation, University of Freiburg, 1889)
Moberg, L., 'Växtnamnet grön', Studier i Nordisk Filologi 58 (1971), 174-84

5.10.2 Individual Studies (Lexical)
(Unclassified to avoid assumptions)

[Anon.], 'Deadly Nightshade', Countryside 2 (1905), 42 [divale]
[Anon.], 'A Mixed Bag', Countryside 2 (1905), 83 [hedge mustard = senvy]
Bender, H.H., 'English strawberry', American Journal of Philology 55 (1934), 71-4
Bierbaumer, Peter, 'Ae. fornetes folm: eine Orchideenart', Anglia 92 (1974), 172-6
Biggam, C.P., 'Hæwenhnydele: an Anglo-Saxon Medicinal Plant', Botanical Journal of Scotland 46 (1994), 617-22
Biggam, C.P., 'Saffron in Anglo-Saxon England', Dyes in History and Archaeology 14 (1996 for 1995), 25-37 [croh]
Breeze, Andrew, [article on the Cornish etymology of billere] (forthcoming, 1999)
Brøndegaard, Vagn Jørgensen, 'Ein angelsächsischer Pflanzenname: openars(e)', Sudhoffs Archiv 63 (1979), 190-3
Brøndegaard, Vagn Jørgensen, 'Kodriver, Cowslip', Sudhoffs Archiv 71.1 (1987), 100-102
Campanile, Enrico, 'Minima Cornica', Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 33 (1974), 23-7 [blind(e) netel]
Cameron, M.L., 'What Plant was Attorlothe (atorlaþe)?', Parergon 10.2 (1992), 27-34
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia, 'Divergenze e convergenze lessicali in inglese antico: il case di elehtre', Studi sulla cultura germanica dei secoli IV-XII in onore di Giulia Mazzuoli Porru [= Romanobarbarica 10], edited by M.A. D'Aronco, A.M. Luiselli Fadda and M.V. Molinari (Rome, 1990), 65-102
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia, 'Inglese antico galluc', Annali, Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli: sezione germanica, Filologia germanica 28-9 (1985-6), 83-100
Dodgson, J.M., 'ME cronebery', Notes and Queries 213 (1968), 88-9
Ebbinghaus, Ernst A., 'The Book and the Beech Tree', General Linguistics 22 (1982), 99-103
Ekwall, E., 'The Name Salcey', Anglia Beiblatt 37 (1926), 191-2 [sealegn]
Elliot, F.A., 'The Names 'Oak Fern' and 'Beech Fern', Gymnocarpium dryopteris and Thelypteris phegopteris (as Phegopteris polypodioides)', British Fern Gazette 8 (1954), 100
Fries, I., 'Svenska Namn för Convallaria majalis', Svenska Landsmål 98 (1975), 60-82 [lily-of-the-valley]
Fries, S., 'Trädnamnet al (Alnus)', Nysvenska Studier 37 (1957), 5-45 [alder]
Fries, S., 'Växtnamnet Älggräs', Studier i Nordisk Filologi 58 (1971), 89-91 [meadow sweet]
Gutenbrunner, S., 'Der Malvenname ags. geormenleaf', Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 12 (1936), 40-42
Hall, Allan R., [Untitled etymological note on shives], Circaea 8 (1992 for 1990), 73 [spring onion]
Hempl, G., 'Is book from the Latin?', Anglia 15 (1893), 220-22 [bece?]
Hermodsson, L., 'Der Name der Mistel', Studia Neophilologica 43 (1971), 173-9 [mistletoe]
Hermodsson, L., 'Der Pflanzenname Stiefmütterchen', Studier i Modern Språkvetenskap 19 (1956), 42-60 [pansy]
Hesselman, B., 'Växtnamnet Sippa', Namn och Bygd 40 (1952), 1-10[wood anemone]
Holm, G., 'Mistel, Viscum album; Pors, Myrica gale, Ledum palustre', Meijerbergs Arkiv för Svensk Ordforskning 13 (1972), 67-76 [mistletoe, Labrador tea]
Horn, Peter C., 'The Earliest Reference to Black Poplar in England?', BSBI News 73 (1996), 28
Horn, Peter C., 'Old Names for Native Primulas', BSBI News 62 (1992), 37-8 [primrose, cowslip]
Hough, Carole, 'The Place-Name Satterleigh', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 2.99 (1998), 173-5 [*sæterwyrt]
James, A., 'Heath, Heather and Ling in Place-Names', The Year Book of the Heather Society (1985), 40-5
Kitson, Peter, 'Two Old English Plant-Names and Related Matters', English Studies 69 (1988), 97-112 [æþelferþingwyrt, cex]
Krogmann, W., 'Ae. georman-, geormen-', Englische Studien 70 (1935-6), 322-3
Krogmann, W., 'Ae. geormanleaf', Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 12 (1936), 173-81
Krogmann, W., 'Ae. geormanleaf und der Name der Germanen', Englische Studien 69 (1934-5), 161-79
Lehmann, W., 'Zu ae. collon-croh, ahd. coller-wurz 'nymphaea'', Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung 9 (1907), 23-6, 161
McClure, Peter, 'Three Plant Names in ME Place-Names and Surnames: 'Breme', 'Rounce', 'Bilberry'', Notes and Queries 21 (1974), 42-4
'Manchester Pythagorean', 'Popular Names of Plantago lanceolata', Field Natural Science Studies (1882), 158 [ribwort plantain]
Mansion, J., 'Die Etymologie von holen', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 33 (1907), 547-70
Marzell, H., ''Adam und Eva' als volkstümliche Pflanzennamen', Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 23 (1955), 117-21
Moffat, Douglas, 'The Occurrences of ac 'oak' in Old English: a List', Mediaeval Studies 49 (1987), 534-40
Mosley, C., 'Local Name for Equisetum (Shave Grass or Dutch Rush)', Naturalist (1931), 61
Nordhagen, R., Botaniske Studier over Bringebær og Andre Folkelige Rubus-Navn i Norden (Oslo, 1965)
Nordhagen, R., 'Forsök til en Konkret Tydning av Svenske Orchis-Navn med Endelsen Nycklar', Nysvenska Studier 43 (1963), 140-79
Nordhagen, R., Kusymre, Kodriver, Cowslip og Paigle: Studier over Gamle Primula-Navn i Nord-Vest-Europa (Oslo, 1954)
Nordhagen, R., 'Kveldkippa og Skvattram, Dynamiske Motiv i Nordiske Plantenavn, Hjortron og Hjortinger: Komparative Studier over Nordiske Dialektnavn på Rubus chamaemorus', Nysvenska Studier 27 (1947), 1-47 [cloudberry]
Nordhagen, R., Studier over Gamle Plantenavn, 1: Motiver i Nordiske Navn på Skinntryter og Blåbær (Vaccinium uliginosum og V. Myrtillus) (Bergen, 1946) [northern bilberry and bilberry]
Peeters, Christian, 'Proto-Germanic 'book': a Comparative Note', General Linguistics 22 (1982), 266 [bece]
Rosenfeld, H-F., 'And. *roda, ahd. *matara, mlat. gaisto, gaisdo, ahd. retza, frühmhd. risza, rizza, Farberröte,
Krapp, Rubia tinctorum L. und Verwandtes', Festschrift für Gerhard Cordes zum 65. Geburtstag, vol. 2 (Neumünster, 1976), 257-93 [madder]
Rosier, J.L., 'A Different Hyssop: Old English hlenortear', Word 29 (1978), 110-3
Rydén, Mats, 'English Names for Convallaria Majalis L.', Studier i modern språkvetenskap, new series 8 (1987), 61-70 [lily-of-the valley]
Rydén, Mats, 'English Names for Primulas', BSBI News 63 (1993), 25 [primrose, cowslip]
Rydén, Mats, 'English Words for Ljung', Studies in Anglistics for Magnus Ljung, edited by Gunnel Melchers and Beatrice Warren (Stockholm, 1995) [heather]
Rydén, Mats, 'Forget-me-not: an English Plant Name of European Lineage', Language History and Linguistic Modelling: a Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, edited by Raymond Hickey and Stanislaw Puppel (Berlin, 1997), p. 571-83
Rydén, Mats, 'Den Mångtydiga Maskrosen', Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 84 (1990) [dandelion]
Rydén, Mats, 'Namnet maskros och dess Väg till Riksgiltighet', Om Växtnamn, edited by Sigurd Fries (Umeå, 1990) [dandelion]
Rydén, Mats, 'On Swedish Orchid Names in yxne', The Nordic Flora, Towards the Twenty-First Century: Studies in Honour of Bengt Jonsell on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday, 11 June 1996, edited by Ulla-Maj Hultgård, Karin Martinsson and Roland Moberg (Uppsala, 1996)
Rydén, Mats, 'Shakespeare's Cuckoo-Buds', Studia Neophilologica 49 (1977)
Rydén, Mats, 'Towards a Standardization of the Official Swedish Plant Nomenclature in the 20th Century: the Names of Orchids', Norm, Variation and Change in Language (Stockholm, 1997)
Rydén, Mats, 'Two Old English Names for Orchids', Essays on English Language in Honour of Bertil Sundby, edited by Leiv Egil Breivik, Arnoldus Hille and Stig Johansson (Oslo, 1989) [fornetes folm, hræfnes leac]
Rydén, Mats, 'Växtnamnet förgätmigej i Europeiskt Perspektiv', Aspekter på Växtnamn (Umeå, 1997) [forget-me-not]
Schneider, Karl, 'Zur Etymologie von ae. eolhsand 'Bernstein' und elehtre 'Lupine' im Lichte bronzezeitlichen Handels', Collectanea Philologica: Festschrift für Helmut Gipper zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Günther Heintz and Peter Schmitter (Baden-Baden, 1985), II, 669-81
Taylor, H.J., 'Popular Names of Orchids', Science-Gossip 12 (1876), 167
Trier, J., 'Ags. geormanleaf', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 67 (1945), 64

5.10.3 Individual Studies (Non-Lexical)

Individual studies: a good source is Simpson, N. Douglas, A Bibliographical Index of the British Flora Including Floras, Herbals, Periodicals, Societies and References Relating to the Identification, Distribution and Occurrence of Phanerogams, Vascular Cryptogams and Charophytes in the British Isles (Simpson, 1960), p. 6-40. Individual plant references also occur in the geographical section, p. 59-429.

5.10.3.1 Alder

[Anon.], 'Alder Clog Soles', Kew Bulletin 1904 (1906), 6

5.10.3.2 Ash

Rodger, Ian, 'The Hill with the Ash Trees: King Alfred's Battle at Essendune', Popular Archaeology 5.5 (1983), 35-6

5.10.3.3 Beech

Dallimore, W., 'Fagus sylvatica: Beechwood Industry in the Chilterns', Kew Bulletin (1911), 109

5.10.3.4 Box

Dallimore, William, Holly, Yew and Box with Notes on Other Evergreens (London, 1908)

5.10.3.5 Bramble

Edees, E.S. and A.N. Newton, Brambles of the British Isles (London, 1988)

5.10.3.6 Buttercup

Hardy, J., 'Buttercups and Daisies', Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 2 (1849), 12

5.10.3.7 Cherry Plum

Körber-Grohne, U., Pflaumen Kirschpflaumen Schlehen: heutige Pflanzen und ihre Geschichte seit der Früzeit (Stuttgart, 1996) [plum, cherry plum, sloe]

5.10.3.8 Corncockle

Hall, A.R., 'The Cockle of Rebellion, Insolence, Sedition', Interim 8.1 (1981), 5-8

5.10.3.9 Cuckoo Flower

Hardy, J., 'Notes on Cuckoo Flowers and the Cuckoo Spit', Edinburgh Natural Philosophy Journal, new series 16 (1862), 70

5.10.3.10 Daisy

Hardy, J., 'Buttercups and Daisies', Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 2 (1849), 12
Lankester, P., 'The Daisy', Popular Science Review 1 (1862), 2

5.10.3.11 Deadly Nightshade

Lousley, J.E., 'A Plant to Beware of - the Deadly Nightshade', Countryside, new series 8 (1927), 68

5.10.3.12 Dock

[Anon.], 'Dock Roots as Medicine', Countryside Monthly 4 (1912), 259
Lousley, J.E. and D.H. Kent, Docks and Knotweeds of the British Isles (London, 1981)

5.10.3.13 Elder, Dwarf

Grigson, G., 'The Legend of a Plant (Sambucus ebulus)', Country Life 113 (1953), 145
Sargant, W.L., 'Daneweed and the Danish Vikings in Rutland and Kesteven (Sambucus ebulus)', Rutland
Archaeology and Natural History Society (1952), 6

5.10.3.14 Elm

Hall, David, 'Elm: a Field Survey', Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society 68 (1978), 21-46
Wilkinson, G., Epitaph for the Elm (London, 1978)

5.10.3.15 Flax

Babington, C.C., 'On the Weeds Infesting Flax Fields', Gardener's Chronicle (1844), 89
Helbaek, H., 'Notes on the Evolution and History of Linum', Kuml (1959), 103-20
Schaefer, Gustav, 'On the History of Flax Cultivation', Ciba Review 49 (1945), 1762-71

5.10.3.16 Forget-Me-Not

Wattam, W.E.L., 'A Legend of the Forget-me-not', Naturalist's Journal and Guide 9 (1900), 47

5.10.3.17 Goosefoot

Grieve, M. and E. Oswald, The Chenopodium Family (1911)

5.10.3.18 Gorse

Lucas, A.T., 'Furze: a Survey and History of its Uses in Ireland', Béalideas 26 (1958-60), 1-204

5.10.3.19 Harebell

Habben, F.H., 'Hair Bell or Hare Bell', Science-Gossip 17 (1881), 118

5.10.3.20 Hawthorn

Cornish, Vaughan, Historic Thorn Trees in the British Isles (London, [1941])

5.10.3.21 Heather

Turrill, W.B., 'Amphichromy in Leather, Calluna vulgaris', Kew Bulletin (1920), 221

5.10.3.22 Holly

Atkin, M., 'Hollin Names in North-West England', Nomina 12 (1988-9), 77-88
Dallimore, William, Holly, Yew and Box with Notes on Other Evergreens (London, 1908)
Radley, Jeffrey, 'Holly as a Winter Feed', Agricultural History Review 9 (1961), 89-92
Spray, Martin, 'Holly as a Fodder in England', Agricultural History Review 29 (1981), 97-110

5.10.3.23 Hemp

Godwin, Harry, 'The Ancient Cultivation of Hemp', Antiquity 41 (1967), 42-9 and 137-8

5.10.3.24 Hop

Wilson, D. Gay, 'Plant Remains from the Graveney Boat and the Early History of Humulus lupulus L. in Western Europe', New Phytologist 75 (1975), 627-48

5.10.3.25 Knotweed

Lousley, J.E. and D.H. Kent, Docks and Knotweeds of the British Isles (London, 1981)

5.10.3.26 Lady's Bedstraw

Warwick, E. et al., 'Ladies'-Bedstraw and Harriff: Correspondence from 'The Athenaeum', Journal of Botany 6 (1868), 178

5.10.3.27 Madder

Mell, C.D., 'A Brief Historical Account of Madder', Colourist (1932), 241-4
Sandberg, The Red Dyes: Cochineal, Madder and Murex Purple (1998)

5.10.3.28 Mugwort

Armstrong, E.A., 'Mugwort Lore', Folk-lore 55 (1944), 22
Grigson, G., 'Three Instruments of Magic (Hypericum perforatum, Sorbus aucuparia and Artemisia vulgaris)', Country Life 113 (1953), 1070

5.10.3.29 Mustard

Stoddart, W.W., 'Mustard and the Mustard Plant (Brassica nigra and Sinapis alba)', Bristol Naturalists' Society 2.6 (1872), 35

5.10.3.30 Oak

Fletcher, J.M., 'Tree-Ring Chronologies for the 6th to 16th Centuries for Oaks of Southern and Eastern England', Journal of Archaeological Science 4 (1977), 335-52
Hillam, Jennifer and Cathy Groves, 'Dendrochronology: Tree-Ring Analysis of Oak Timbers from Milk Street', Aspects of Saxo-Norman London, 2: Finds and Environmental Evidence, edited by Alan Vince (London, 1991), 406-7
Musty, John, 'Science Diary: a Saxon Post', Current Archaeology 110 (1988), 107 [oak]
Nicholson, Rebecca A. and Jennifer Hillam, 'A Dendrochronological Analysis of Oak Timbers from the Early
Medieval Site, Dundas Wharf, Bristol', Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 105 (1987), 133-45
Schove, D.J., 'Dendrochronological Dating of Oak from Old Windsor, Berkshire, c. A.D. 650-906', Medieval Archaeology 18 (1975), 165-72

5.10.3.31 Orchid

Davies, P., et al., Wild Orchids of Britain and Europe (London, 1988)

5.10.3.32 Parsley, Cow

Wattam, W.E.L., 'Anthriscus sylvestris, Step-Mother's Blessing', Naturalist (1927), 348 and (1928), 96

5.10.3.33 Pignut, Great

Horley, F.E., 'Pegnuts or Pignuts', Bedfordshire Magazine 1 (1949), 317

5.10.3.34 Plum

Körber-Grohne, U., Pflaumen Kirschpflaumen Schlehen: heutige Pflanzen und ihre Geschichte seit der Früzeit (Stuttgart, 1996) [plum, cherry plum, sloe]

5.10.3.35 Poplar

Meikle, R.D., Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1985)

5.10.3.36 Primrose

Lousley, J.E., 'The Story of the Primrose', Countryside, new series 8 (1928), 109

5.10.3.37 Primrose, Bird's-Eye

Robinson, L., 'Primula Farinosa', North-Western Naturalist 7 (1932), 231

5.10.3.38 Ragwort

Cameron, E., 'A Study of the Natural Control of Senecio jacobaea', Journal of Ecology 23 (1935), 265

5.10.3.39 Ramsons

Core, E.L., 'Ramsons', Castanea 10 (1945), 110

5.10.3.40 Rowan

Grigson, G., 'Three Instruments of Magic (Hypericum perforatum, Sorbus aucuparia and Artemisia vulgaris)', Country Life 113 (1953), 1070

5.10.3.41 Saffron Crocus

Biggam, C.P., 'Saffron in Anglo-Saxon England', Dyes in History and Archaeology 14 (1996), 19-32
Christy, Miller, 'Industries [Saffron Culture]', The Victoria History of the County of Essex, vol. 2, edited by William Page and J. Horace Round (London, 1907), p. 359-66
Clarke, Joseph, 'Notes on the Saffron Plant (Crocus sativus, L.) and in Connection with the Name of the Town of Saffron Walden', Essex Naturalist 1 (1887), 9-16
Douglas, James, 'An Account of the Culture and Management of Saffron in England', Philosophical Transactions 35.405 (1728), 565-74
Hayward, Vicky, 'Saffron', Herbs 21.1 (1996), 4-7
Howard, Charles, 'A Relation of the Culture, or Planting and Ordering of Saffron', Philosophical Transactions 12.138 (1678), 945-9
Jakits, Madeleine, 'Safran: rotes Gold aus einem schlichten lila Krokus', Pharmazeutische Zeitung 137.20 (1992), 1451-6
Kronfeld, E.M., Geschichte des Safrans (Crocus sativus L. var. culta autumnalis) und seiner Cultur in Europa (Vienna, 1892)
Reber, B., 'Der Safran in der Geschichte', Schweizerische Wochenschrift für Chemie und Pharmacie 4 (1902), 37-9
Tscholakowa, Maria, 'Studien zur Geschichte der Heilpflanzen: zur Geschichte der medizinischen Verwendung des Safran (Crocus sativus)', Kyklos: Jahrbuch des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin an der Universität Leipzig 2 (1929), 179-90
Ward, Diane Raines, 'Flowers are a Mine for a Spice More Precious than Gold', The Smithsonian 19.5 (1988), 105-11

5.10.3.42 St John's Wort, Perforate

Grigson, G., 'Three Instruments of Magic (Hypericum perforatum, Sorbus aucuparia and Artemisia vulgaris)', Country Life 113 (1953), 1070

5.10.3.43 Self-Heal

Holland, R., 'Self-Heal (Prunella vulgaris)', Science-Gossip 9 (1873), 28

5.10.3.44 Sloe

Körber-Grohne, U., Pflaumen Kirschpflaumen Schlehen: heutige Pflanzen und ihre Geschichte seit der Früzeit (Stuttgart, 1996) [plum, cherry plum, sloe]

5.10.3.45 Teasel

Hall, Allan R. and Philippa Tomlinson, 'Archaeological Records of Dye Plants, an Update, With a Note on Fullers' Teasels', Dyes in History and Archaeology 8 (1990), 19-21
Hall, Allan R., 'The Last Teasel Factory in Britain, and Some Observations on Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum L. and D. sativus (L.) (Honckeny) Remains from Archaeological Deposits', Circaea 9 (1992), 9-15

5.10.3.46 Tree Mallow

Hogg, J., 'Note on Rope Made from Tree Mallow (Lavatera arborea)', Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 6 (1862), ix

5.10.3.47 Wheat

Jasny, Naum, The Wheats of Classical Antiquity (Baltimore, 1944)
Nesbitt, M. and D. Samuel, 'From Staple Crop to Extinction?: the Archaeology and History of the Hulled Wheats', Hulled Wheats: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy, edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer and J. Heller (Rome, 1996), p. 41-100
Padulosi, S., K. Hammer and J. Heller, ed., Hulled Wheats: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy (Rome, 1996)
Percival, John, The Wheat Plant: a Monograph (London, 1921)

5.10.3.48 Whitebeam

Ekwall, Eilert, '[Hoar-withy]', Studies on English Place-Names, by Eilert Ekwall (Stockholm, 1936), 169

5.10.3.49 Willow

Bean, W.J., 'The Cricket-Bat Willow', Kew Bulletin (1907), 311
Brendell, Theresa, Willows of the British Isles (Princes Risborough, 1985)
Meikle, R.D., Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1985)

5.10.3.50 Woad

[Anon.], 'Woad', Kew Bulletin 1902 (1906), 15
Cardon, D., 'From the Medieval Woad-Vat to the Modern Indigo-Vats: a Brief History of the Long Decline of Woad Seen Through Technical Sources', Beiträge zur Waidtagung, edited by N. Müllerot and H.E. Müllerot (Arnstadt, 1992) [conference pre-prints]
Darwin, Francis, and R. Meldola, 'A Visit to an English Woad Mill', Nature 55.1411 (1896), 36-7
Hall, Allan R., 'Archaeological Records of Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) from Medieval England and Ireland', Beiträge zur Waidtagung (1992), 21-2
Hall, Allan R., 'Archaeological Evidence for Woad, Isatis tinctoria L., from Medieval England and Ireland', Res archaeobotanicae, edited by H. Kroll and R. Pasternak (Kiel, 1995), p. 33-8
Harris Rendel, A., A Primitive Dye-Stuff (Cambridge, 1927)
Hurry, J.B., The Woad Plant and its Dye (Oxford, 1930)
Müllerot, N. and H.E. Müllerot, ed., Beiträge zur Waidtagung [conference pre-prints] (Arnstadt, 1992)
Plowright, Charles B., 'On the Blue Colour in Woad', Nature 61.1579 (1900), 331-2
Plowright, Charles B., 'On Woad as a Prehistoric Pigment', Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 26 (1901), 33-40
Plowright, Charles B., 'Woad as a Blue Dye with an Account of its Bibliography', Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 18 (1902), 179-80
Van der Veen, M., A.R. Hall, and J. May, 'Woad and the Britons Painted Blue', Oxford Journal of Archaeology 12 (1993), 367-71
Vetter, A., 'Probleme und Lösungsansätze für Entwicklung von Anbauregimen für Färberpflanzen am Beispiel des Waids', Beiträge zur Waidtagung, edited by K. Ladstätter and H. Müllerot (Erfurt, 1994), p.44-50
Wills, Norman T., Woad in the Fens, third edition (Long Sutton, 1979)

5.10.3.51 Yew

Baxter, Trevor, The Eternal Yew (Hanley Swan, 1992)
Bellamy, David, 'The Fortingall Mystery', Country Homes and Interiors (February 1999), 80-2
Carroll, J., 'Yew-Tree Poisoning', Countryside 3 (1906), 252
Dallimore, William, Holly, Yew and Box with Notes on Other Evergreens (London, 1908)
Harte, Jeremy, 'How Old is that Old Yew?', At the Edge 4 (1996).
Wilson, W.H., 'The Poison of the Yew', Countryside 3 (1906), 38



ASPNS Bibliography contents