LILT Project: Introduction and Guide
The LILT project aims to bring together teachers of English and Modern Languages in a joint endeavour to improve the linguistic skills of their pupils and students. It consists of three booklets, A, B and C, and a compact disk. The booklets describe the philosophy of the project and discuss and exemplify classroom practice. The CD contains over three hundred entries covering linguistic concepts and suggesting classroom activities. Around half of these entries are grammatical terms, including parallel entries for French, German and Spanish as appropriate. The remainder cover topics from areas such as Semantics, Sociolinguistics, Phonetics, and Punctuation (the latter also with foreign language entries). Backing them up are a series of Position Papers and examples of text-based language study.

Structure and Content of the CD:
The project is organised round a series of ICONS, symbols indicating different types of information. In order to activate them, all you have to do is click on the left button of your mouse. The main information is held within the Glossary section, but using the other icons will enable you to access the information in different ways, e.g. to find all the entries for German or for Phonetics.

LILT icon
This represents the project as a whole. The symbol is borrowed from the lollipop person, a friendly soul who helps you cross the road into new territory. You can click this icon at any time to return to the first page: the HOMEPAGE.



Glossary icon
Linguistic terms arranged alphabetically.

When you click the glossary icon, you will be presented with a grid of letters of the alphabet. Click the letter which will take you to the item you are interested in, e.g. A for Adverb or Antonym. You will be shown the entry for that item arranged as follows:

  • Headword: Adverb
  • Level: D (referring to English Language 5-14)
  • Language: English (the language to which the entry refers)
  • Topic: Grammar (the main subject area)
  • Definition: A concise definition of the term
  • Notes: Further information about the term and suggestions for reading
  • Compare: A term or idea which might usefully be considered alongside the one in question
  • Concept: The skill or competence developed through understanding the term
  • See also: Cross references to other terms in the database which might be useful or to entries for this term in other languages (except where another language is specified, cross-references are to the English entry)
  • Strategies: Click here for classroom activities, games, etc.

Some of the above fields may be blank if there is no relevant information.

D means that the basic term is found at Level D in the English Language KAL strands. [D] means that the term is a more sophisticated dimension of the same basic term, to be taught at a later stage or with less explicit terminology.

Within each entry some items are highlighted in BLUE. Clicking on these LIVE LINKS will take you straight to the new entry. RED highlighting is used for emphasis and for technical terms which are not in the database.


Languages icon
Clicking this icon will take you to the MENUS for the languages held in the database:
  • English
  • French
  • German
  • Spanish


Levels icon
Clicking this icon will take you to the menu for links to the different levels:
  • English Language 5-14 (A-F)
  • Standard Grade/Higher Still (SG/HS)
  • Advanced Higher (AH)

We have added certain terms which we think might be useful but which are not specifically mentioned in these sources. These are labelled "not included".


Topics icon
Using this icon enables you to access all the items under a particular topic. These include:
  • Discourse
  • Grammar
  • History of English
  • Meaning
  • Phonetics
  • Punctuation
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Stylistics
  • Typography


Position Papers icon
There are 20 Position Papers that give up to date comment on teaching and learning approaches in Language, both subject-focused and generic.

1. Teaching Secondary English in Scotland
2. Dialect, Standard English, and the Child at Home and in School
3. Language Background and Educational Failure
4. Why do we teach Grammar?
5. How do we teach Knowledge about Language?
6. Classroom Approaches to Teaching the Genres of Writing
7. Learning Through Reading and Writing: Informational Texts
8. The Development of Listening Skills
9. The Development of Talking Skills
10. Teaching Modern Languages: How Lessons Develop
11. Grammar, Reading and Writing in Modern Languages S4-6
12. Assessing the Productive Skills in Modern Languages S4-6
13. Language and the Bilingual Pupil
14. Language Awareness, First Language Acquisition and Modern Language Teaching in School
15. Progression in Language Awareness through Modern Languages
16. From Parsing to Politics: A Brief History of School Grammar Teaching
17. Language Games and Activities
18. Talking, Reading and Writing about Fiction Texts
19. Developing a Sense of the Structure of Stories
20. Teaching Secondary Modern Languages in Scotland


Texts icon
This icon takes you to a set of sample texts with linguistic analyses and notes on classroom use. Texts include:

Text 1: Daft Jackie (Imaginative Narrative)
Text 2: Our Day at the Farm (Personal Recount P5)
Text 3: A Day to Remember (Personal Recount P7)
Text 4: Elephant (Functional Information Report)


Strategy icon
Clicking this link will open a pop-up window with ideas for possible strategies for teaching the item. Click CLOSE to close this window.

The following categories are used to describe the competences and cognitive skills developed by the ability to use the terms:
  • Categorisation
  • Change over time
  • Figures of speech
  • Meaning discrimination
  • Pronunciation
  • Spoken style
  • Structure
  • Stylistic discrimination
  • Variation
  • Vocabulary building
  • Word structure
  • Written style

Suggestions for further reading are given at the end of Booklet B.

The following Form and Function Labels are used in the CD (with lower case for minor parts of speech). Examples of unacceptable usages are marked with an asterisk *.

a auxiliary verb (modal and primary)
A Adverbial
Aj Adjective
AjP Adjective Phrase
Av Adverb
AvP Adverb Phrase
c conjunction
C Complement
d determiner (including articles)
H Headword
i interjection
M Modifier
N Noun
NP Noun Phrase
O Object
P Predicator
pn pronoun
PP Prepositional Phrase
pr preposition
S Subject
V Verb
VP Verb Phrase

The following levels are marked:
A-F: English Language 5-14
AH Advanced Higher
SG/HS: Standard Grade/Higher Still

Booklet files
The files for the accompanying booklets are included on the CD. You can find them in a folder called ‘Booklets’ and are in Word 97 (.doc) and RTF (.rtf) format.

The LILT project was funded by the Scottish Executive Education Department to provide staff development resources for teachers of English and Modern Languages in Scottish primary and secondary schools.

The project team included staff from English Language, Modern Languages and Language Education in the Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde (see Booklet B).

The LILT Project is grateful to the following writers and publishers for permission to quote from their publications:

Egmont Children's Books Ltd for WHISPERS IN THE GRAVEYARD by Theresa Breslin

Faber & Faber for THE MIDNIGHT FOX by Betsy Byars

Moira Andrew for SHOWER, first published in Calendar of Poems, edited by Wes Magee, Bell & Hyman, 1987

David Higham Associates for CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY by Roald Dahl

Penguin UK for STIG OF THE DUMP by Clive King

Struan Publishing for LEST WE FORGET: SCOTLAND IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR by Helen McLullich

Watergaw Publications for THE SCOTS LANGUAGE: ITS PLACE IN EDUCATION by Liz Niven and Robin Jackson, eds, and A BRAW BREW by Pete Fortune and Liz Niven, eds.


Extra copies of the LILT pack are available at cost price from:

Prof. Christian Kay, Department of English Language, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ,

Design and Implementation of CD: Rachel Bell and Iain Robbie,
Glass Box Technology, Glasgow,

CD Project Manager, to whom comments and queries should be addressed:

Jean Anderson, STELLA Project, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ,